定冠詞

"The"は、英語で最も一般的な言葉のひとつで、唯一の定冠詞です。聞き手が話し手の言及することをすでに知っていると話し手が思う場合、英語の名詞の前に、この定冠詞をつけます。話し手がそう思うのは、以下のような理由があります。

 

"The"を使う時

一般的な規則

すでに述べた何かを再び言及する時the を使います。

  • On Monday, an unarmed man stole $1,000 from the bank. The thief hasn't been caught yet.
  • I was walking past Benny's Bakery when I decided to go into the bakery to get some bread.
  • There's a position available in my team. The job will involve some international travel.

以前に述べていなくても、その場にそれがたった一つしかないと思われる場合 the を使います。

  • We went on a walk in the forest yesterday.
  • Where is the bathroom?
  • Turn left and go to number 45. Our house is across from the Italian restaurant.
  • My father enjoyed the book you gave him.

特定の人や物を定義したり確認する文章や文節でthe を使います。

  • The man who wrote this book is famous.
  • I scratched the red car parked outside.
  • I live in the small house with a blue door.
  • He is the doctor I came to see.

独特の人や物を言及する時には theを使います。

  • The sun rose at 6:17 this morning.
  • You can go anywhere in the world.
  • Clouds drifted across the sky.
  • The president will be speaking on TV tonight.
  • The CEO of Total is coming to our meeting.

最上級や序数詞にthe を使います。

  • This is the highest building in New York.
  • She read the last chapter of her new book first.
  • You are the tallest person in our class.
  • This is the third time I have called you today.

グループ全体を表すために副詞と一緒に theを使います。

  • The French enjoy cheese.
  • The elderly require special attention.
  • She has given a lot of money to the poor.

十年毎の年代を表す時に the を使います。

  • He was born in the seventies.
  • This is a painting from the 1820's.

onlyで始まる文節に the を使います。

  • This is the only day we've had sunshine all week.
  • You are the only person he will listen to.
  • The only tea I like is black tea.
固有名詞

地理的地域、河川、山脈、諸島、運河や海洋の名前にthe を使います。

  • They are travelling in the Arctic.
  • Our ship crossed the Atlantic in 7 days.
  • I will go on a cruise down the Nile.
  • Hiking across the Rocky Mountains would be difficult.

複数形の国名に theを使います。

  • I have never been to the Netherlands.
  • Do you know anyone who lives in the Philippines?

"republic"、"kingdom"や "states" がつく国名に theを使います。

  • She is visiting the United States.
  • James is from the Republic of Ireland.

新聞名に the を使います。

  • I read it in the Guardian.
  • She works for the New York Times.

有名な建物、芸術作品や記念碑の名前に the を使います。

  • Have you been to the Vietnam Memorial?
  • We went to the Louvre and saw the Mona Lisa.
  • I would like to visit the Eiffel Tower.
  • I saw King Lear at the Globe.

人物名にちなんでいないホテルやレストラン名に the を使います。.

  • They are staying at the Hilton on 6th street.
  • We ate at the Golden Lion.

個人の名前ではなく家族の苗字に the を使います。

  • We're having dinner with the Smiths tonight.
  • The Browns are going to the play with us.

"The"を使わない場合

国名に the は使いません (上記の特別な場合を除く)。

  • Germany is an important economic power.
  • He's just returned from Zimbabwe.

言語名に theは使いません。

  • French is spoken in Tahiti.
  • English uses many words of Latin origin.
  • Indonesian is a relatively new language.

食事にtheは使いません。

  • Lunch is my favorite meal.
  • I like to eat breakfast early.

人名に the は使いません。

  • John is coming over later.
  • Mary Carpenter is my boss.

名前が後に続く肩書きに theは使いません。

  • Prince Charles is Queen Elizabeth's son.
  • President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas.

所有格の後に theは使いません。

  • His brother's car was stolen.
  • Peter's house is over there.

職業にtheは使いません。

  • Engineering is a well-paid career.
  • He'll probably study medicine.

店名に the は使いません。

  • I'll get the card at Smith's.
  • Can you go to Boots for me?

年にthe は使いません。

  • 1948 was a wonderful year.
  • He was born in 1995.

不可算名詞に the は使いません。

  • Rice is an important food in Asia.
  • Milk is often added to tea in England.
  • War is destructive.

個々の山、湖や島の名前に the は使いません。

  • Mount McKinley is the highest mountain in Alaska.
  • She lives near Lake Windermere.
  • Have you visited Long Island?

ほとんどの町、道、駅や空港の名前にはthe は使いません。

  • Victoria Station is in the centre of London.
  • Can you direct me to Bond Street?
  • She lives in Florence.
  • They're flying into Heathrow.