指示詞

指示詞は、話し手に対して物、出来事や人がどこにあるかを示し、物理的、精神的な近さや距離を表すことが出来ます。出来事を言う時、近い指示詞は現在を表し、遠い指示詞は過去を表します。

  話し手に近い 話し手から遠い
副詞 Here There
単数名詞&不可算名詞と指示詞 This That
可算名詞の複数形と指示詞 These Those

指示詞の使い方

話し手に近い 話し手から遠い
Is this John's house? Is that John's house over there?
This is a nice surprise! That must have been a nice surprise for you.
These apples are mine. Those apples are yours.
What are you up to these days? Those days are long gone.
This time I won't be late. We really surprised you that time.
This sugar is for my crepes. You can use that sugar for your cake.

文章内での配置

指示詞は名詞や、名詞を修飾する形容詞の前に置かれます。

  • This blue car needs to be washed next.
  • Those people were here first.
  • That metal rod should work.
  • These oranges are delicious.

指示詞は、文脈から名詞が明らかな場合、数字の前に現れます。

  • I'd like to try on that one.
  • This one is broken.
  • I'll take these three.
  • Those two are not as pretty as these two.

それらが修飾する名詞が文脈から明らかな場合、指示詞はそれだけで使うことが出来ます。

  • I'll never forget this.
  • That has nothing to do with me.
  • I didn't ask for these.
  • Those aren't mine.