現在分詞 -ing

-ing で終わる動詞は、現在分詞か動名詞です。これら二つは同じように見えますが、文章中の機能に違いがあります。

現在分詞

動詞の継続形の一部として、知覚動詞の後に、動作の動詞の後に、あるいは形容詞として最もよく使われます。.

動詞の継続形の一部としての現在分詞

現在分詞はすべての継続動詞形の要素 (過去、現在、未来、 条件文など)です。現在分詞はそのまま変わらず、助動詞が時制を示します。

  • He is painting.
  • She was waiting.
  • They will be coming.
  • We would be staying.
  • I would have been leaving.
知覚動詞の後の現在分詞

現在分詞は、動詞 + 目的語 + 現在分詞のパターンで、知覚動詞の後に使われ、その行動が知覚されていることを示します。

  • We saw him swimming across the pond.
  • I watched her painting Sarah's portrait.
  • I couldn't hear her singing because of the noise.
  • I would like to see you knitting sometime.
動き、動作や位置を表す動詞の後に置かれ、並行して行なわれる活動を示す現在分詞
  • She sat looking at the sea.
  • He walks reading his newspaper.
  • I cook listening to the radio.
  • Sally lay listening to the bugs in the grass.
形容詞としての現在分詞
  • Did you read that amazing book?
  • This movie is so exciting!
  • His economics class is boring.

詳細は 現在分詞の使い方をご覧下さい。

動名詞

動名詞は、名詞と同じ機能を持ちます。動詞のように見えますが名詞と同じ方法で使われます。

文章の主語となる動名詞
  • Eating people is wrong.
  • Driving too fast is dangerous.
  • Walking is good for you.
  • Your knitting is beautiful.
前置詞の後の動名詞
  • Can you sneeze without opening your mouth?
  • She is good at painting.
  • I was the fastest at climbing the rope.
  • He learns music by listening to the chords.
特定の動詞の後の動名詞
Examples
  • I like cooking.
  • He enjoys walking.
  • They hate milking cows.
  • I can imagine drifting away in a balloon.
複合名詞の中の動名詞
  • I took her to her driving lessons.
  • We are going to the swimming pool.
  • My uncle does a lot of bird-watching.
  • I found this pie by dumpster-diving.

詳細はt 動名詞の使い方をご覧下さい。