仮定法混合型

二つの条件文が、それぞれ異なる時を述べることも可能で、これを"仮定法混合型" と呼びます。仮定法混合型の文には二つのタイプがあります。

過去の条件に対する現在の結果

形状

このタイプの仮定法混合型は、'if' 節の時制が過去完了形で、主節の時制が条件付現在形です。

If 節 (条件) 主節 (結果)
If + 過去完了形 条件付現在形
If this thing had happened that thing would happen.

すべての条件文と同様に、文節の順序は決まっていません。代名詞を置き換えたり、句読点を調節しなければならない場合がありますが、意味は同じです。

  • If I had worked harder at school, I would have a better job now.
  • I would have a better job now if I had worked harder at school.
  • If we had looked at the map we wouldn't be lost.
  • We wouldn't be lost if we had looked at the map.
  • If you had caught that plane you would be dead now.
  • You would be dead now if you had caught that plane.
機能

このタイプの仮定法混合型は、非現実な過去の条件と、それに対し現在起こりえることを述べています。これらの文章は、過去も現在も現実と反する状況を述べており、 "if" 節では過去 を主節では 現在を述べています。

  • If I had studied I would have my driving license. (しかし勉強しなかったので、現在免許書を持っていない)
  • I would be a millionaire now if I had taken that job. (しかしその仕事をしなかったので、現在億万長者ではない)
  • If you had spent all your money, you wouldn't buy this jacket. (しかしお金を全部使わなかったので、今このジャケットを買うことができる)

仮定法混合型では、主節でwouldの代わりに叙法を使い、結果の確信、許可、推薦の程度を表現することもできます。

  • If you had crashed the car, you might be in trouble.
  • I could be a millionaire now if I had invested in ABC Plumbing.
  • If I had learned to ski, I might be on the slopes right now.

現在の結果の過去あるいは条件付継続

形状

2つめの仮定法混合型は、 'if' 節が単純過去形で、主節は条件付完了形です。

If 節 (条件) 主節 (結果)
If + 単純過去形 条件付完了形
If this thing happened that thing would have happened.

すべての条件文と同様に、文節の順序は決まっていません。代名詞を置き換えたり、句読点を調節しなければならない場合もありますが、意味は同じです。

  • If I wasn't afraid of spiders, I would have picked it up.
  • I would have picked it up if I wasn't afraid of spiders.
  • If we didn't trust him we would have sacked him months ago.
  • We would have sacked him months ago if we didn't trust him.
  • If I wasn't in the middle of another meeting, I would have been happy to help you.
  • I would have been happy to help you if I wasn't in the middle of another meeting.
機能

この仮定法混合型は非現実な現在の状況とそれに対してあり得る(が非現実な)過去の結果を述べています。これらの仮定法混合型は、if 節の時制が 今あるいはいつでも で主節は 今より前を述べます。例えば、 "If I wasn't afraid of spiders" は、現実とは反します。 I am afraid of spiders. "I would have picked it up" は、過去の現実とは反します。 I didn't pick it up.

  • If she wasn't afraid of flying she wouldn't have travelled by boat.
  • I'd have been able to translate the letter if my Italian was better.
  • If I was a good cook, I'd have invited them to lunch.
  • If the elephant wasn't in love with the mouse, she'd have trodden on him by now.