過去完了

過去完了の機能

過去完了は、 今までより前を示します。過去にある出来事が別の出来事よりも前に起こったことを明確にします。 どちらが先に起こったのかは時制が明確にしますので、どちらの出来事を先に述べるかは重要ではありません。

以下の例では、出来事 Aが先に始まり、出来事B は二番目に起こったか、より最近に起こっています:

出来事A 出来事 B
John had gone out when I arrived in the office.
出来事 A 出来事 B
I had saved my document before the computer crashed.
出来事 B 出来事 A
When they arrived we had already started cooking.
出来事 B 出来事 A
He was very tired because he hadn't slept well.

過去完了の作り方

英語の過去完了形は二つの要素からできています: 動詞to haveの過去形  (had) + 主動詞の過去分詞

主語 had 過去分詞
肯定文
She had given
否定文
She hadn't asked.
疑問文
Had they arrived?
否定疑問文
Hadn't you finished?
To decide、過去完了
肯定文 否定文 疑問文
I had decided I hadn't decided Had I decided?
You had decided You hadn't decided Had you decided?
She had decided She hadn't decided Had she decided?
We had decided We hadn't decided Had we decided?
They had decided They hadn't decided Had they decided?

過去完了 + just

'Just' が過去完了と一緒に使われると今よりほんの少し前の出来事を指します。例:

  • The train had just left when I arrived at the station.
  • She had just left the room when the police arrived.
  • I had just put the washing out when it started to rain.