現在完了継続

現在完了継続の作り方

現在完了継続は、二つの要素から出来ています:'to be'動詞の現在完了形 (have/has been)と主動詞の 現在分子 (基本形+ing)です。

主語 has/have been 基本形+ing
She has been swimming

肯定文: She has been / She's been running.
否定文: She hasn't been running.
疑問文 : Has she been running?
否定疑問文: Hasn't she been running?

例: 現在完了継続、TO LIVE
肯定文 否定文 疑問文
I have been living I haven't been living Have I been living?
You have been living You haven't been living Have you been living?
He, she, it has been living He hasn't been living Has she been living?
We have been living We haven't been living Have we been living?
You have been living You haven't been living Have you been living?
They have been living They haven't been living Have they been living?

現在完了継続の機能

現在完了継続は、 '今以前'と '今'の間の不特定の時間 を指し、話し手がその時間内に始まり、まだ終わってないだろう出来事について考えています。彼/彼女は プロセスと結果に興味を持ち、そのプロセスはまだ続いているか、今終わったばかりです。

過去に始まったアクションが現在も続いている

She has been waiting for you all day (= そして彼女は今も待っている).
I've been working on this report since eight o'clock this morning (= そして私はまだ終わっていない).
They have been travelling since last October (= そして彼らはまだ家に着いていない).

そのアクションは今終わったばかりで、その結果に興味がある

She has been cooking since last night (= そしてテーブルの上の料理はおいしそうだ).
It's been raining (= そして道はまだ濡れている).
Someone's been eating my chips (= そして半分がなくなった).

継続形でない動詞

通常継続形を使わない動詞には、シンプルな現在完了形を使います。例:I've wanted to visit China for years.
She's known Robert since she was a child.
I've hated that music since I first heard it.
I've heard a lot about you recently.
We've understood everything.
we've heard this morning.