単純未来時制

単純未来時制の機能

単純未来は今よりも後を示し、事実や確信を表します。この場合、’態度’というものはありません。

単純未来形は以下の場合に使います:

  • 未来の出来事の予測:
    It will rain tomorrow.
  • I やWeと共に、自発的な決心:
    I'll pay for the tickets by credit card.
  • 意欲の表現:
    I'll do the washing-up.
    He'll carry your bag for you.
  • 否定的な形で、意欲のなさを表現:
    The baby won't eat his soup.
    I won't leave until I've seen the manager!
  • "shall"を使った疑問文で、申し出を表現:
    Shall I open the window?
  • "shall"を使った疑問文でweと共に、提案を表現:
    Shall we go to the cinema tonight?
  • "shall"を使った疑問文でIと共に、忠告や指示を請う:
    What shall I tell the boss about this money?
  • Youと一緒に使って命令を与える:
    You will do exactly as I say.
  • 疑問文でyou と一緒に使って、誘引する:
    Will you come to the dance with me?
    Will you marry me?

備考:現代英語では、 willshallより好まれます。 Shall は主に Iwe と共に使われ、申し出や提案をしたり、忠告を請います (上記参照)。他の人 (you, he, she, they) と一緒にshall が使われるのは、文学や詩の場合のみです。例"With rings on her fingers and bells on her toes, She shall have music wherever she goes."

単純未来形の作り方

単純未来時制は二つの部分から成ります:will / shall + toのない不定詞

主語 will toのない不定詞
肯定文
I will go
I shall go
否定文
They will not see
They won't see
疑問文
Will she ask?
否定疑問文
Won't they try?
縮約

I will = I'll
We will = we'll
You will = you'll
He will = he'll
She will = she'll
They will = they'll
Will not = won't

"it will" は通常短くされません。

To see: 単純未来形

肯定文 否定文 疑問文 否定疑問文
I will see I won't see Will I see? Won't I see?
*I shall see   *Shall I see?  
You will see You won't see Will you see? Won't you see?
He will see He won't see Will he see? Won't he see?
We will see We won't see Will we see? Won't we see?
*We shall see   *Shall we see?  
They will see They won't see Will they see? Won't they see?

*Shallは、古いですが、Iweの 肯定や疑問と共に "will" の代わりによく使われる場合があります(上記参照)。