単純過去形

単純過去形の機能

単純過去は、 今より前終了した行動 について述べるために使います。期間は重要ではありません。行動が起こった時は、最近でも、ずっと前でも使えます。

  • John Cabot sailed to America in 1498.
  • My father died last year.
  • He lived in Fiji in 1976.
  • We crossed the Channel yesterday.

いつ 何かが起こったかを述べる時に単純過去を使います。

  • frequency: often, sometimes, always
    I sometimes walked home at lunchtime.
    I often brought my lunch to school.
  • a definite point in time: last week, when I was a child, yesterday, six weeks ago
    We saw a good film last week.
    Yesterday, I arrived in Geneva.
    She finished her work atseven o'clock
    I went to the theatre last night
  • an indefinite point in time: the other day, ages ago, a long time ago People lived in caves a long time ago.
  • She played the piano when she was a child.

備考: ago は、どれくらい前かを表現するのに役立つ言葉で、ある時間の を示します: a week ago, three years ago, a minute ago.

注意: 英語の単純過去形は、あなたの母国語の時制のように見えるかもしれませんが、おそらく意味が異なるでしょう。

単純過去形の作り方

通常の動詞の単純過去形のパターン
肯定文
主語 + 動詞 + ed  
I skipped.  
否定文
主語 + did not + toのない不定詞
They didn't go.
疑問文
Did + 主語 +toのない不定詞
Did she arrive?
否定疑問文
Did not + 主語 + toのない不定詞
Didn't you play?
To Walk
肯定文 否定文 疑問文
I walked I didn't walk Did I walk?
You walked You didn't walk Did you walk?
He walked He didn't walk Did he walk?
We walked We didn't walk Did we walk?
They walked They didn't walk Did they walk?
to be, to have, to doの単純過去時制
主語 動詞
  Be Have Do
I was had did
You were had did
He/She/It was had did
We were had did
You were had did
They were had did

肯定文、否定文&疑問文形での備考

肯定文

肯定文での単純過去形は簡単です。

  • I was in Japan last year
  • She had a headache yesterday.
  • We did our homework last night.
否定文と疑問文

否定文と疑問文での一般動詞としての"do"の単純過去形は、助動詞の"do",を使います。例 We didn't do our homework last night.
単純過去形での"have"の否定は助動詞の"do"を使いますが、単にnot や縮約の "n't"を使うこともできます。

単純過去形での"have"の疑問文は一般に助動詞"do".を使います。

  • They weren't in Rio last summer.
  • We didn't have any money.
  • We didn't have time to visit the Eiffel Tower.
  • We didn't do our exercises this morning.
  • Were they in Iceland last January?
  • Did you have a bicycle when you were young?
  • Did you do much climbing in Switzerland?

備考:単純過去形における すべての 動詞の否定や疑問には常に助動詞 'did''を使います。

単純過去形、不規則動詞

単純過去形で不規則な動詞もあります。下記は最も一般的なものです:

to go
  • He went to a club last night.
  • Did he go to the cinema last night?
  • He didn't go to bed early last night.
to give
  • We gave her a doll for her birthday.
  • They didn't give John their new address.
  • Did Barry give you my passport?
to come
  • My parents came to visit me last July.
  • We didn't come because it was raining.
  • Did he come to your party last week?