現在完了

現在完了の作り方

すべての動詞の現在完了は二つの要素から成ります:適切な助動詞 to have (現在時制)、プラス主動詞の過去分詞 。通常の動詞の過去分詞は基本形+ed、例 played, arrived, looked。不規則動詞は '動詞'セクションの不規則動詞の表 をご覧下さい。

肯定文
主語 to have 過去分詞
She has visited.
否定文
主語 to have + not 過去分詞
She has not (hasn't) visited.
疑問文
to have 主語 過去分詞
Has she visited?
否定疑問文
to have + not 主語 過去分詞
Hasn't she visited?
To Walk、現在完了
肯定文 否定文 疑問文
I have walked I haven't walked Have I walked?
You have walked You haven't walked. Have you walked?
He, she, it has walked He, she, hasn't walked Has he, she, it walked?
We have walked We haven't walked Have we walked?
You have walked You haven't walked Have you walked?
They have walked They haven't walked Have they walked?

現在完了の機能

現在完了は、現在と過去との繋がりを示すために使われます。この行動が起こった時は、今より前ですが特定されず、行動自体よりも結果 により興味があります。

注意! あなたの母国語に似た形の動詞時制があるかもしれませんが、おそらく異なったものでしょう。
現在完了は以下を述べる場合に使われます
  • 過去に始まり、現在も続いている行動や状況。I have lived in Bristol since 1984 (= 私はまだそこに住んでいる)
  • まだ終わっていない期間に行なわれた行動。Shehas beento the cinema twice this week (= その週はまだ終わっていない)
  • 過去と現在の間の不特定な期間に繰り返し行なわれる行動。We have visited Portugal several times.
  • 'just'で表現される最近完了した行動。 I have just finished my work.
  • 時間が重要でない行動。 He has read 'War and Peace'. (= 彼が読んだという結果が重要)

備考:: いつ、どこで、誰がといった詳細を与えたい場合は、単純過去形を使います。 現在完了形と単純過去形の使い分け方で詳細をご覧下さい。

過去に始まり現在も続いている行動
  • They haven't lived here for years.
  • She has worked in the bank for five years.
  • We have had the same car for ten years.
  • Have you played the piano since you were a child?
述べられた期間がまだ終わっていない時
  • I have worked hard this week.
  • It has rained a lot this year.
  • We haven't seen her today.
過去と現在の不特定な期間に繰り返し行なわれる行動
  • They have seen that film six times
  • It has happened several times already.
  • She has visited them frequently.
  • We have eaten at that restaurant many times.
最近完了した行動(+just)
  • Have you just finished work?
  • I have just eaten.
  • We have just seen her.
  • Has he just left?
行動が起こった正確な時間が重要ではない、あるいはわからない時
  • Someone has eaten my soup!
  • Have you seen 'Gone with the Wind'?
  • She's studied Japanese, Russian, and English.

現在完了形を "ever", "never", "already"や "yet"と一緒に使う現在完了形を "for" や "since"と一緒に使うをご覧下さい。