仮定法過去形

形状

仮定法過去形の文章は、 'if' 節が単純過去形で、主節は条件付現在形あるいは 条件付現在継続形です。

If 節 (条件文) 主節 (結果)
If +単純過去 条件付現在形 or 条件付現在継続形
If this thing happened that thing would happen.

すべての条件文と同様に、文節の順序は決まっていません。代名詞を置き換えたり、句読点を調節しなければならない場合もありますが、意味は同じです。

  • If it rained, you would get wet.
  • You would get wet if it rained.
  • If you went to bed earlier you wouldn't be so tired.
  • You wouldn't be so tired if you went to bed earlier.
  • If she fell, she would hurt herself.
  • She would hurt herself if she fell.

機能

仮定法過去形は、ありそうもなり、あるいは仮定に基いた条件で、起こる可能性のある結果を述べます。これらの文章は現実の状況に基いていません。仮定法過去形が指す時間は今あるいはいつでも で、仮説を述べます。

  • If the weather wasn't so bad, we would go to the park. (But the weather is bad so we can't go.)
  • If I was the Queen of England, I would give everyone a chicken. (But I am not the Queen.)
  • If you really loved me, you would buy me a diamond ring.
  • If I knew where she lived, I would go and see her.

"if I was"の代わりに"if I were" と言うのはとても一般的で、正しい使い方です。

  • If I were taller, I would buy this dress.
  • If I were 20, I would travel the world.
  • If I were you, I would give up smoking.
  • If I were a plant, I would love the rain.

仮定法過去形の文章では、主節に"would"の代わりに叙法を使い、結果に対する確信、承認や推薦の度合いを示すこともできます。

  • We might buy a larger house if we had more money
  • He could go to the concert if you gave him your ticket.
  • If he called me, I couldn't hear.

条件付現在時制

すべての動詞の条件付現在形は、二つの要素から成ります:
would + "to"を使わない主動詞の不定詞

主語 + would + 不定詞
He would go
They would stay
To Go、条件付現在形
肯定文 否定文 疑問文 否定疑問文
I would go I wouldn't go Would I go? Wouldn't I go?
You would go You wouldn't go Would you go? Wouldn't you go?
He would go He wouldn't go Would he go? Wouldn't he go?
She would go She wouldn't go Would she go? Wouldn't she go?
We would go We wouldn't go Would we go? Wouldn't we go?
They would go They wouldn't go Would they go? Wouldn't they go?