不定詞

不定詞の作り方

不定詞は動詞の基本形です。英語の不定詞について述べる際は、通常最も一般的な現在不定詞を指しています。しかし、不定詞にはその他に四つの形状があります:完了不定詞完了不定詞継続, 不定詞継続受動不定詞です。

不定詞には二つの形状があります:

  • to不定詞 = to + 基本形
  • to なし不定詞 = 基本形

現在不定詞の基本形は、辞書にある動詞の形状です。

To不定詞 Toなし不定詞
to sit sit
to eat eat
to have have
to remember remember

不定詞の否定は not を不定詞の前に置きます。

  • I decided not to go to London.
  • He asked me not to be late.
  • I'd like you not to sing so loudly.
  • I'd rather not eat meat.
  • I might not come.

To不定詞の機能

To不定詞は、様々な構文で使われ、何かの目的や、何かに対する誰かの意見を表現することがよくあります。To不定詞は、数多くの動詞の後に使われることもあります。 不定詞が後に続く動詞のページをご覧下さい。

行動の目的や意図を示すto不定詞

この場合 toin order toso as toと同じ意味です。

  • She came to collect her pay cheque.
  • The three bears went to find firewood.
  • I am calling to ask you about dad.
  • You sister has gone to finish her homework.
文章の主語となるto不定詞

これは形式的な使い方で、口頭よりも文書に書く場合により多く使われます。

  • To be or not to be, that is the question.
  • To know her is to love her.
  • To visit the Grand Canyon is my life-long dream.
  • To understand statistics, that is our aim.
何かが何に使われるのかを示すto不定詞

このパターンでは、to不定詞は名詞や代名詞の後に置かれます。

  • The children need a garden to play in.
  • I would like a sandwich to eat.
  • I don't have anything to wear.
  • Would you like something to drink?
形容詞の後の to不定詞

形容詞と一緒に to不定詞を使うのは、よくあるパターンです。 この句の形状:
主語 + to be + 形容詞 + (for/of someone) + to不定詞+ (残りの文章)

主語 + to be + 形容詞 (+ for/of someone) + to不定詞 (+ 残りの文章)
It is good   to talk.  
It is good of you to talk to me.
It is important   to be patient.  
It is important for Jake to be patient with his little brother.
I am happy   to be here.
The dog is naughty   to destroy our couch.
コメントや判断のto不定詞

名詞に関するコメントや判断を行なために to不定詞を使うパターン:
主語 + to be + 名詞句 + to不定詞

主語 + to be + 名詞句 + to不定詞
It was a stupid place to park.
That is a dangerous way to behave.
What you said was a rude thing to say.
This is the right thing to do.
Those were the wrong kind of eggs to buy.
Jim is the best person to hire.
形容詞と一緒に使うto不定詞

To不定詞は、満足や不満足の理由を表現するために副詞 tooenough と一緒に頻繁に使われます。そのパターンは、 tooenough が、それが修飾する形容詞、副詞や名詞の前後に置かれます。そしてその後、その量が多すぎる、十分である、あるいは不十分であるかの理由を説明するためにto不定詞を用います。一般に、to不定詞とそれ以降をすべて取り除いても、その文は文法的に機能します。

  • There's too much sugar to put in this bowl.
  • I had too many books to carry.
  • This soup is too hot to eat.
  • She was too tired to work.
  • He arrived too late to see the actors.
  • I've had enough food to eat.
  • She's old enough to make up her own mind.
  • There isn't enough snow to ski on.
  • You're not old enough to have grand-children!
疑問詞と一緒に使う to不定詞

動詞 ask, decide, explain, forget, know, show, tellとunderstandの後に、 where, how, what, whoとwhenといった疑問詞 + to不定詞を続けることができます。

  • She asked me how to use the washing machine.
  • Do you understand what to do?
  • Tell me when to press the button.
  • I've forgotten where to put this little screw.
  • I'm not sure I know who to call.

Toなし不定詞の機能

助動詞の後のtoなし不定詞
  • She can't speak to you.
  • He should give her some money.
  • Shall I talk to him?
  • Would you like a cup of coffee?
  • I might stay another night in the hotel.
  • They must leave before 10.00 a.m.
知覚動詞の後のtoなし不定詞

知覚動詞と一緒に使う場合のパターン:動詞 +目的語+to不定詞.

  • He saw her fall from the cliff.
  • We heard them close the door.
  • They saw us walk toward the lake.
  • She felt the spider crawl up her leg.
動詞 'make' と 'let'の後のtoなし不定詞
  • Her parents let her stay out late.
  • Let's go to the cinema tonight.
  • You made me come with you.
  • Don't make me study that boring grammar book!
'Had better'の表現の後のtoなし不定詞
  • We had better take some warm clothing.
  • She had better ask him not to come.
  • We had better reserve a room in the hotel.
  • You'd better give me your address.
  • They had better work harder on their homework.
"Why"と一緒に使うtoなし不定詞

提案する場合、疑問詞 why の後にtoなし不定詞を使うことができます。

  • Why wait until tomorrow?
  • Why not ask him now?
  • Why leave before the end of the game?
  • Why walk when we can go in the car?
  • Why not buy a new bed?